mtDNA Results Page

Specifically, mtDNA analysis is performed looking for both similarities and differences among individuals.  Over 16,500 base pairs of genetic (mtDNA) material have been identified in humans and 540 base pairs encompassing the entire HVR-1 area, (hyper variable control region 1), are used for genealogical and genetic analysis.

A base pair is a specific component of the DNA and is made of either purine bases Adenine (A), and Guanine (G), or pyrimidine bases Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).  Therefore, our report will express your results as a series of letters, representing the purine and pyrimidine bases specifically found in your HVR-1 control region.  The HVR-1 area of the control region (CR) is used because mutations occur more frequently in this region and therefore changes can be followed to delineate specific human lineages more easily.

The physical process of analyzing your mtDNA begins with the simple scraping of your inner cheek using the brush provided in your sampling kit.  The cells and the DNA they contain are preserved in the solution in the sample tube.  When the lab receives the test tubes, the DNA is extracted using a solution of chemicals and enzymes.  This DNA must then be amplified or copied in order to have enough for the tests.  This technique, called the Polymerase Chain Reaction, was invented by Kary Mullis, a California scientist who later won the Nobel Prize for for this invention.  Each of the bases, (A) Adenine, (G) Guanine, (T) Thymine, and (C) Cytosine, are tagged with a fluorescent dye and run through an electric field which separates them into a series of colored bands.  A laser detector then identifies the color and plots the read-out in a series of peaks and troughs.  This is then computer analyzed to give the final sequence.  This basic technique was developed twenty years ago by British scientist, Fred Sanger, and resulted in his second Nobel Prize.

Using this information, an analysis of the 540 base pairs surrounding and including the entire HVR-1 has been performed and a standard 400 base pairing referred to as the Cambridge Reference Sequence has been determined.  Commonly mtDNA pairings are compared to this standard and differences are shown

The analysis highlights these differences and may be compared to another individuals pairs. The database at FamilyTree DNA will be helpful in finding other individuals with exactly the same mtDNA.  This exact duplication means two individuals shared a common female ancestor.  Research over the last decade has suggested several maternal lines ultimately all originating from the first woman "Eve" approximately 140,000 years ago in Africa.  Further details may be reviewed in the journal Nature Genetics, November 2000 or in Science, November, 2000."  (FamilyTree DNA)

Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to both her female and male children, but her sons can not pass it on to his children – only the daughter can pass it on.  Mitochondrial DNA is very stable and passes through the female generations with little or no change.  To prove a direct female lineage through several generations is very difficult. The mtDNA test may help.

 

We recently have several female participants who have documented their direct female-to-female ancestors back to Rebecca Bryan Boone, wife of Daniel Boone, and others who have documented their lineages to Sarah Morgan Boone, mother of Daniel and siblings.  Two women have submitted their lab kits who descend from Sarah Morgan through her daughter Sarah Boone Willcoxson, and their tests are expected to match a gentleman who is awaiting his mtDNA test results.  He also traces his lineage back to Sarah Morgan, but through her daughter Elizabeth Boone Grant.  They should all carry identical mtDNA. 

 

The man is considered the “terminal male” in an all-female line, because he received that same mtDNA from his mother, who received it from her mother, etc., back to Sarah Morgan and, of course then, to Sarah’s mother, grandmother etc.; but he cannot pass it on to his children.  More information can be found at:  www.familytreedna.com/description.html#mtDNA.

 

The HVR-1 and HVR-2 tables for the Cambridge Reference Sequence are located at the bottom of this page.  The following table lists our mtDNA participants by kit number and only the differences between the Cambridge Reference Sequence and each individual is given.

 

 Kit         HVR-1 Haplogroup    HVR-1 Mutations                                                  HVR-2 Mutations                                        Earliest Known Ancestress.................

#25264      Haplogroup H            16189C; 16356C; 16519C                                        263G;  315.1C                                                   Rebecca Bryan                    b.1738

#26440      Hapolgroup H            16519C                                                                   N/A                                                                  Sarah Morgan                     b.1700

   #26441      Haplogroup H            16519C                                                                N/A                                                                  Sarah Morgan                      b. 1700

#27162      Haplogroup H             16519C                                                                  63G;  315.1C                                                    Sarah Morgan                      b.1700 

#27613      Haplogroup H 44a*     16093C; 16519C                                                     263G; 309.1C; 315.1C                                     Lizabeth Burk Cleghorn      b.1833 in AR/TN

#27626      Haplogroup J1            16069T;  16092C;  16126C;  16261T                         73G;185A;263G;295T;309.1C;                           Mahala Brannum b. 1818-20

                                                                                                                                        315.1C;462T;489C

#28258      Haplogroup H             16519C                                                                  N/A                                                                  Juda Worsham                     1796-1882

#36997      Haplogroup I              16129A;16172C;16223T;16311C;16391A;16519C     N/A                                                                 Unk wife of Israel Boone  d. ca 1756 NC

#39838      Haplogroup U2          16051G;16129C;16183C; 16189C;                            73G;152C;216C;263G;309.1C;309.2C;                 Henrietta Kelm        b. 1848 Freidheim, Germ.
                                                         16362C;16519C;                                                     315.1C;340T;508G;524.1C;524.2                                                                                                                                                         
 
#N5946     Haplogroup U2          16051G;16129C;16183C; 16189C;                            73G;152C;216C;263G;309.1C;309.2C;                 Henrietta Kelm        b. 1848 Freidheim, Germ.
                                                        16362C;16519C;                                                315.1C;340T;508G;524.1C;524.2 
 
#6420       Haplogroup U5a          16129T; 16270T; 16304C                                         73G;150T;189G;228A;263G;309.1C;315.C         No information at this time.

#49772      Haplogroup H             16304C                                                                   N/A                                                                  Elizabeth? early 1600's (mar. to Cornelius Van Dyke)

#48773      Haplogroup K             16224C; 16311C; 16519C                                        N/A                                                                   No information at this time.

49815      Haplogroup U5a1a        16256T; 16270T; 16362C; 16399G                           N/A                                                                  Amelia Brady                                                b. Germany early 1800's

#1237        Haplogroup J              16069T; 16126C                                                       N/A                                                                  Taylor; Faulkner; Hart; Herring; Rabourrn; Elliott b. 1788.

#69093      Haplogroup K            16224C; 16311C;  16320T; 16519C                           73G; 146C; 152C; 263G; 309.1C; 315.1c; 498-39997   Sarah Hays           b. South Carolina 1806

#69384      Haplogroup H            16189C;  16519C                                                     N/A                                                                    No information at this time.

#39997       Haplogroup U5a1a   16256T;  16270T;  16399G                                        N/A                                                                    No information at this time.

#83303     Haplogroup T2           16126C;  16304C;  16519C                                       73G;  152C;  263G;  309.1C;  315.1C                     No information at this time.

#96187     Haplogroup H             16235C; 16304C                                                     N/A                                                                      No information at this time.   

#96261     Haplogroup T3           16126C; 16183C; 16189C; 16292T; 16294T; 16519C  N/A                                                                      No information at this time.

#24824     Haplogroup K            16111T;16189C;16224C;16256T;16311C;16519C      73G;263G;315.1C;497T;524.1C;524.2A                    No information at this time.

#62344     Haplogroup T*           16126C; 16294T; 16296T; 16519C                            N/A                                                                       No information at this time.

#100299    Haplogroup H           16189C;  16356C;  16632C;  16519C                         N/A                                                                       No information at this time.

#131394    Haplogroup H           16362C;  16482G                                                     N/A                                                                        Unknown   

#132384    Haplogroup J1b1       16069T; 16126C; 16145A;  16172C 16192T; 16222T; 16261T   N/A                                                                     Newberry;  Penix;  and Phillips b. Sedalia, Missouri in 1852

#N66532    Haplogroup H          16092C;  16293G;  16311C                                       195C;  263G;  309.1C;  309.2C;  315.1C                    Sarah Jane Percy b. 1877 - d. 1864 in LA

#148385    Haplogroup X           16079T; 16093C; 16104T; 16183C;                           73G; 146C; 153G; 263G; 315.1C; 522-; 523-               Unknown at this time 
                                                             16189C; 16223T; 16301T; 16519C
#155335    Haplogroup H           15419C                                                                   N/A                                                                         Unknown at this time.
 
#156163    Haplogroup K          16093C; 16224C;  16311C;  16519C                          N/A                                                                         Unknown at this time.
 
#183553  Haplogroup W  1       6223T; 16292T; 16519C                                             N/A                                                                         Unknown at this time.
 
#187328 Haplogroup T1          16126C; 16163G; 16189C; 16243C; 16266T;               73G; 263G; 309.1C; 315.1C; 523,1C; 523.2A                 Mary Ehrman 1738-1838
                                                           16294T; 16519C;  
                                                 
#191617 Haplogroup H           16093C; 16221T; 16519C                                           263G; 309.1C    309.2C;    315.1C                                Sarah (Couch) Lewis b. 1774, daughter of Mary Boone  
 
# 156163  Haplogroup K         16093C;  16224C;  16311C;  16519C                           N/A                                                                            Unknown at this time
 
# 440446 Haplogroup K2a6...16129G ;16187T; 16223C; 16224C;                              195T; 247G; 315.1C; 522.1A; 522.2C                             Unknown at this time.
                                                    16230A; 16278C; 16362C

                                                                                                                                          
 Scroll down to see a description of the haplogroups for each kit number:
 

Note:  #26440, #26441 and #27162 did not know each other prior to mtDNA testing and all had their paper genealogy documented back to to Sarah Morgan, mother of the old pioneer, Daniel Boone. 

#25264 has her direct female lineage researched back to Rebecca Bryan, wife of Daniel Boone, the old pioneer.  She belongs to Haplogroup H.

Haplogroup H.  "It is found predominantly in Europeans that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago.  Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H.  It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration.  Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup."

#27613 has her direct female lineage researched back to Lizabeth Burk Cleghorn, probably born in Arkansas or Tennessee about 1833 and married to Joseph J. Rum(b)ley about 1857 in Arkansas.  Family tradition says her family was originally from Scotland.  She belongs to haplogroup H*.  Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H.

#27626 has her direct female lineage researched back to Mahala Brannum b. ca.1818/20, married  to Benjamin Branun  23 Mar 1836 in Madison County, Alabama. She possibly belongs to haplogroup J1.

Haplogroup J1  "The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J1 is found distributed throughout Europe, from Britain to Iberia and along the Mediterranean coast. This widespread distribution strongly suggests that haplogroup J1 was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago."

#28258  has her direct female lineage researched back to Judith Elizabeth Poole 1843-1918 Georgia; Nancy Crow 1822-1846 GA; and Juda Worsham 1796-1882. She belongs to haplogroup H.

#36997 has her direct female lineage researched back to the wife of Israel Boone.  Her name has been unknown, and some believed she may have been Native American, but these mtDNA results don't show any Native American heritage.  She belongs to Haplogroup I which is described as principally a European haplogroup.  Haplogroup I is detected at very low frequency across west Eurasia with slightly greater representation in northern and western Europe. Given its wide, but sparse, distribution, it is likely that it was present in those populations that first colonized Europe. This hypothesis is supported by the estimate its age—approximately 30,000 years."

#39838 is in Haplogroup U2.  (sister to below N5946) has her direct female lineage researched back to Henrietta Kelm, b. 22 Aug 1848 in Freidheim, Germany (Deutschland) and died 13 Feb 1925, Bureau County, Walnut, Illinois.   Haplogroup U2 is described as:  "It is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout.  This sparse, yet widespread dissemination, when combined with the presence of an applies haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the sub haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago".   Also, according to Dr. Bryan Sykes book, "The Seven Daughters of Eve", page 212,  "Cheddar Man is perhaps the most celebrated of its former members"....of haplogroup U.

#N5946 is also in Haplogroup U2.  (brother to above #39838) has his direct female lineage researched back to Henrietta Kelm, b. 22 Aug 1848 in Freidheim, Germany (Deutschland) and died 13 Feb 1925, Bureau County, Walnut, Illinois.   Haplogroup U2 is described as:  "It is found distributed in the Near East and Europe, though it is maintained a rather low frequency throughout.  This sparse, yet widespread dissemination, when combined with the presence of an applies haplogroup found in India, suggests that haplogroup U2 is very old, and was likely an early lineage of the sub haplogroup U, which arose greater than 50,000 years ago".   Also, according to Dr. Bryan Sykes book, "The Seven Daughters of Eve", page 212,  "Cheddar Man is perhaps the most celebrated of its former members"....of haplogroup U.

#6420 is also in Haplogroup U, but more specifically, Haplogroup U5a.  "The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K.  Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago.  Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe.  Haplogroup U5a - a lineage within U5 - is somewhat younger, dating to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is mostly distributed in southern Europe.  Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 and U5a may have come in contact with Neanderthals living in Europe at that time."  An interesting item is the mtDNA of The Cheddar Man shows his haplogroup was U5a.  http://www.standardtimes.com/daily/03-97/03-09-97/a09wn056.htm   http://www.isogg.org/famousdna.htm

#49772 is in Haplogroup H, which is considered to be the most common in western Europe.  She has her maternal line researched back and beginning in the early to mid-1600's with Elizabeth ? (mar to Cornelius VanDyke>Maria VanDyke>Patience Daws/Davis b. 1674>Altje Cowenhoven/Conover b. 1705>Helena Williamson b. 1735>Antje Conover b, 1757>Sarah Vanderbilt b. 1780>Eliza Stevens b. 1806>Sarah Fairchild b. 1832>Theodosia Scofield b. 1860>Virginia Boone b.1899.

#49815 is in Haplogroup U5a1a She has researched her maternal line back to and beginning with Amelia Brady b. Germany >Mary Weitzel (1851-1937);  Lulu Roth (1875-1948);  and her mother who was born after 1900.  Haplogroup U5a1a   Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, a lineage within haplogroup U5-arose in Europe less than 20,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe.  The modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1a suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the populations that had tracked the retreat of ice sheets from Europe."

#1237 is in Haplogroup J, which is described as "The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages.  The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago.  Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions.  Haplogroup J* --- the root lineage of haplogroup J---- is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency.  Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago.

#69093  is in Haplogroup K, which is described as  "The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum."  The Ice Man also belongs to haplogroup K. 

Haplogroup K - The Iceman - Widely known as Oetzi, the Iceman found in 1991 in the Italian Alps, is also known as "Similaun Man".  Of the Neollithic era, Oetzi lived between 3350-3300 B.C. during the "Copper Age".  He was believed to be 46 years old when he died at the top of a mountain pass from wounds received.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/icemummies/iceman.html

#69384 is in Haplogroup H, is described  "It is found predominantly in Europeans that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 20,000 years ago.  Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H.  It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe, and descendant lineages of the original haplogroup H appear in the Near East as a result of migration.  Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup."

 #39997 is in Haplogroup U5a1a,   "The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K.  Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe.  Haplogroup U5a1a—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe less than 20,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. The modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1a suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the populations that had tracked the retreat of ice sheets from Europe."

#83303 is in Haplogroup T2, which is described as    "The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup T2 is one of the older sub-lineages and may have been present in Europe as early as the Late Upper Palaeolithic.

#96187 is in Haplogroup H, which is described as:  Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that participated in a population expansion beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. It is rather uniformly distributed throughout Europe suggesting a major role in the peopling of Europe. Its oldest lineages are found in the Near East and the Caucasus, suggesting an origin or early arrival in these areas before migration into Europe.

#96261 is in Haplogroup T3, which is described as:  The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe.  Individuals bearing the haplogroup T3 lineage likely participated in the Neolithic expansion.

#24824 is in Haplogroup K, which is described as:  The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum.  The Ice Man also belongs to haplogroup K.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/icemummies/iceman.html

#62344 is in Haplogroup T*, which is described as:   The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Today, we find haplogroup T*—the root haplogroup for haplogroup T—widely distributed in Europe.

#100299 belongs to Haplogroup H, which is described as:   Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.
 
Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. 
 
#131394  belongs to Haplogroup H and is described as:    Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. 
 
#132384  belongs to Haplogroup J1b1   The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J1b is found distributed in the Near East and southern Iberia, and may have been part of the original colonization wave of Neolithic settlers moving around the Mediterranean 6000 years ago or perhaps a lineage of Phoenician traders. Within haplogroup J1b, a derivative lineage haplogroup J1b1 has been found in Britain and another sub-lineage detected in Italy. Further research will better establish the relationship of these two geographically distant, yet evolutionarily related, haplogroups.
 
Participant #N66532 belongs to Haplogroup H, which is described as:   Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.
 
Participant #148385 belongs to Haplogroup X  which is described as:  Haplogroup X is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup X dates to approximately 30,000 years, and is found distributed throughout the world. Originally found in Europe and thought to be only distributed regionally, the finding of haplogroup X in the Americas startled the human population genetics community. Recently, it has been discovered that there are two major sub-lineages within haplogroup X, and that the geographic distribution and relative ages of these two sub-lineages accord with previous ideas concerning the peopling of the world. Future work on this interesting haplogroup will better document the particulars of the emergence of its distribution and shed more light on regional historical contact and migration.
 
Participant #155335 belongs to Haplogroup H, which is described as:  Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. 
 
Participant # 183553 belongs to Haplogroup W, which is described as:  Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago.  The original of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and is mainly distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe).  It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum.  Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe.
 
Participant #187328 belongs to Haplogroup T, which is described as:  The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Today, we find haplogroup T*—the root haplogroup for haplogroup T—widely distributed in Europe.

Participant #191617 is a direct female descendant from Mary Boone through her daughter Sarah Couch b. 1774 and her husband James Lewis.  Participant #191617 also has an interesting HVR2 match to a gentleman in the UK;  his 4th great-grandmother was Sarah Boon born in 1770 England.  Participant #191617 belongs to Haplogroup H and is described as:    Mitochondrial haplogroup H is a predominantly European haplogroup that originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest it reached Europe before the LGM. It has also spread to Siberia and Inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe are classified as haplogroup H. 

Participant #156163 belongs to Haplogroup K, which is described as:  The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum.  The Ice Man also belongs to haplogroup K.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/icemummies/iceman.html

Participant # 440446 belongs to Haplogroup K2a6 and is described as:   Haplogroup K is found throughout Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum.  

Cambridge Reference Sequence

HVR1 Reference Sequence (starts at 16001)

16010

16020

16030

16040

16050

16060

16070

16080

ATTCTAATTT

AAACTATTCT

CTGTTCTTTC

ATGGGGAAGC

AGATTTGGGT

ACCACCCAAG

TATTGACTCA

CCCATCAACA

16090

16100

16110

16120

16130

16140

16150

16160

ACCGCTATGT

ATTTCGTACA

TTACTGCCAG

CCACCATGAA

TATTGTACGG

TACCATAAAT

ACTTGACCAC

CTGTAGTACA

16170

16180

16190

16200

16210

16220

16230

16240

TAAAAACCCA

ATCCACATCA

AAACCCCCTC

CCCATGCTTA

CAAGCAAGTA

CAGCAATCAA

CCCTCAACTA

TCACACATCA

16250

16260

16270

16280

16290

16300

16310

16320

ACTGCAACTC

CAAAGCCACC

CCTCACCCAC

TAGGATACCA

ACAAACCTAC

CCACCCTTAA

CAGTACATAG

TACATAAAGC

16330

16340

16350

16360

16370

16380

16390

16400

CATTTACCGT

ACATAGCACA

TTACAGTCAA

ATCCCTTCTC

GTCCCCATGG

ATGACCCCCC

TCAGATAGGG

GTCCCTTGAC

16410

16420

16430

16440

16450

16460

16470

16480

CACCATCCTC

CGTGAAATCA

ATATCCCGCA

CAAGAGTGCT

ACTCTCCTCG

CTCCGGGCCC

ATAACACTTG

GGGGTAGCTA

16490

16500

16510

16520

16530

16540

 

 

AAGTGAACTG

TATCCGACAT

CTGGTTCCTA

CTTCAGGGTC

ATAAAGCCTA

AATAGCCCAC

 

 

HVR2 Reference Sequence (starts at 61)

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

CGTCTGGGGG

GTATGCACGC

GATAGCATTG

CGAGACGCTG

GAGCCGGAGC

ACCCTATGTC

GCAGTATCTG

TCTTTGATTC

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

CTGCCTCATC

CTATTATTTA

TCGCACCTAC

GTTCAATATT

ACAGGCGAAC

ATACTTACTA

AAGTGTGTTA

ATTAATTAAT

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

GCTTGTAGGA

CATAATAATA

ACAATTGAAT

GTCTGCACAG

CCACTTTCCA

CACAGACATC

ATAACAAAAA

ATTTCCACCA

310

320

330

340

350

360

370

380

AACCCCCCCT

CCCCCGCTTC

TGGCCACAGC

ACTTAAACAC

ATCTCTGCCA

AACCCCAAAA

ACAAAGAACC

CTAACACCAG

390

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

CCTAACCAGA

TTTCAAATTT

TATCTTTTGG

CGGTATGCAC

TTTTAACAGT

CACCCCCCAA

CTAACACATT

ATTTTCCCCT

470

480

490

500

510

520

530

540

CCCACTCCCA

TACTACTAAT

CTCATCAATA

CAACCCCCGC

CCATCCTACC

CAGCACACAC

ACACCGCTGC

TAACCCCATA

550

560

570

 

 

 

 

CCCCGAACCA

ACCAAACCCC

AAAGACACCC

 

 

 

 

 

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Updated January 2016